Solar Pumping Toolkit - The Global Solar & Water Initiative
Since the single most important barrier towards a wider adoption of solar pumping solutions is the weak technical expertise of most WASH organizations, support should be encouraged to any solar training activity, that would as much as possible seek to benefit of the wider WASH sector in the country. Additionally, ways of collaboration (with for example academic institutions, knowledgeable private companies or water utilities) should be encouraged in order to make training activities as sustainable or prolonged in time as possible.
Finally, support to evaluations of older (+5 years) solar systems is to be encouraged in order to build up stronger evidence on the adequacy of solar pumping technology for the given context.
GSWI visit reports 2016-2017
GSWI visit reports 2018-2020
Model ToR Evaluation
Background and purpose of the evaluation
A Global Solar and Water Initiative, with funding from ECHO, has been set up in Kenya. The GSWI is working towards reduction of medium and long term recurrent costs of WASH projects by adoption of renewable energy. The project is aiming at promoting, advocating and mainstreaming the use of solar energy in WASH projects (mainly pumping) for refugee and IDP camps as well as local host communities. One of the objectives of the Global Solar and Water Initiative is to improve the cost-effectiveness, efficiency, reliability and sustainability of existing and new solar water pumping schemes. In order to do this the team would like to engage the services of a private consultant to carry out an evaluation of existing solar schemes where different designs, approaches and use of energy are being used and document best practices, shortcomings, improvements and recommend models for sustainability of solar water schemes in refugee camps and communities.
Objectives of the evaluation
The GSWI’s vision is to mainstream the use of solar energy in water projects and aims to improve the cost-effectiveness, efficiency, reliability and sustainability of existing and new solar water pumping schemes. The evaluation is expected to generate lessons and recommendations that could be applied to re-orienting or enhancing the sustainable development of refugee and community water supply schemes in Kenya. It is envisaged that more stakeholders will embrace solar pumping, donors will allocate funds for solar projects and that solar pumping will be entrenched in the strategies and plans of relevant stakeholders (government, donors, NGO’s) The evaluation will look at technical designs and O&M models of existing solar pumping schemes (if any), their effectiveness, efficiency and impact in order to determine whether the solar schemes are sustainable as well as improvements required for sustainability. Where O&M models are non- existent, the consultant will make recommendations of models for sustainability. In brief the evaluation aims to:-
- Determine the impact of solar water pumping in terms of :-
- effectiveness of solar water pumping - quantity, accessibility, quality, acceptability,affordability
- Determine the sustainability of solar water pumping in terms of:-
- Technical design
- Local ownership – cost recovery mechanisms
- Establish and recommend models for sustainability
- Identify best practices of solar pumping
- Identify shortcomings and challenges of solar pumping and make recommendations for improvement
Scope of the evaluation, approach and methods
The evaluation will look at both technical designs and existing models for cost recovery, serviceability of the equipment availability of spare parts, accessibility of service providers, and reliability of the solar water systems and generally the impact of the systems on the users. The evaluation is expected to generate lessons learnt, findings, conclusions and recommendations with a focus on improving the sustainability of solar water schemes. The consultant will investigate the following parameters:
- Functionality of the solar water schemes, average quantity of water delivered to each user, distance to water points and percentage reduction in the waiting time at water points
- The price per barrel of water produced by solar powered systems in comparison to other alternatives e.g. diesel powered systems, hand pumps, water vendors etc.
- Determine the acceptability and relevance of the solar system to the community it is serving
- Efficiency of the solar system and how it has contributed to the well being, health and livelihoods of the users
- Soundness of the technical design and system output in the worst months
- Reliability of the solar-powered water supply system in comparison with the system used prior to the installation of the solar system
- Percentage downtime and associated maintenance cost of solar powered water supply systems
- To what extent the solar powered system has resulted in reduced O&M costs and carbon emissions
- Existence of a module cleaning plan and frequency of cleaning and other regular maintenance carried out at community level
- Impact of vandalism or theft of solar powered water supply systems and development of prevention measures.
- Determine existence of a cost recovery mechanism or any other model for sustainability and whether the system has paid off the investment
- Existence of a service plan and accessibility to service providers and spare parts
- Challenges and shortcomings that are unique to solar systems and make recommendations for improvement
Kenya Sustainablity Evaluation, 2018