For the selection of pilot buildings it is of importance to consider that the lighting measures that will be implemented clearly demonstrate the changes being made as well as the added value from the stakeholders’ point of view.
Identification of stakeholders and/or addressees
It is therefore necessary to identify the ‘stakeholders’ before the selection of pilot buildings and to differentiate, for instance, if one aims to demonstrate added value
- to decision-makers (national, regional, local),
- to entrepreneurs (small, medium, large) and/or to
- end-consumer (rural/urban, of different affluence, educational background etc.)
- or to all of them at the same time.
The differentiation between these groups as well influences the objective of lighting measures. Entrepreneurs may emphasize for instance efficiency effects and a motivating working environment; decision-makers may look at cost effectiveness and public budget; end-consumer may pay more attention to design and comfort than to saving aspects.
In addition to this, it is of importance to define the scope of demonstration in terms of e.g. geographical parameters and/or representativeness of gained experiences.
For further information, see “Guideline: Conducting Successful Lighting Campaigns". GIZ Technology Cooperation in the Energy Sector (2011)
In the following, criteria are listed based on practical experiences in the implementation of a lighting campaign. Addresses of this campaign have been end-consumers.
However, implementation of lighting audits and walk-through audits before the start of the campaign assisted in demonstrating the opportunities of lighting measure to national, regional and local decision-makers. The demonstration supported the readiness of decision-makers to further promote energy efficient lighting.
The listed criteria thus consider as well the possible interest of decision-makers. It is further-more supplemented by criteria that address the likely concern of entrepreneurs. The list is however neither exhaustive, nor has every criteria to be considered. The latter clearly de-pends on the selection of the stakeholders and addressees, the objective of lighting measures and the scope of demonstration!
It is recommendable to start the selection process with geographic criteria while choosing e.g. the region or city for demonstration, then moving on to specify the criteria that buildings in this area should have to qualify for the demonstration measures. These steps will initially provide a preliminary set of buildings that should be further assessed for their technical features. Certainly, estimating for instance saving potentials can only pro-vide a rough judgment but it nevertheless anticipates over-ambitious expectations. Further criteria might be deployed according to the objectives of the demonstration. The se-lection process will narrow down eligible buildings.
- Different regions /municipalities (capital city, regional capital etc .)
- Consideration of socially deprived regions (mapping the different living conditions of a country)
- Regions/municipalities that serve as role-models to other regions already
- Urban and rural areas (whenever possible)
- Easy access to pilot buildings (e.g. in terms of infrastructure, of interest for investors e.g. in urban/suburban areas, high catchment areas )
Criteria that address the building itself
- Well-know buildings by public/population (e.g. national library)
- Buildings that are highly-frequented by population (e.g. registration office, city hall, schools) - also, without entrance fee (‘customer portfolio’)
- Buildings that are considered important by population (e.g. with historical or national importance, objects of identification)
- Building that carry bad reputation shall not be selected (e.g. that are related to corrup-tion, elite etc. by the population)
- Buildings that belong to owners (public, private) who are deemed as ‘innovators’ (i.e. acting as pioneers)
- Buildings that qualify for the implementation of events and campaigns
- Social periphery of the building represents the population that shall be addressed
- Buildings representing the building stock of a suburb, city, region etc.
- Buildings in (urgent) need of rehabilitation/refurbishment
- Consideration of age of the building
- Date of last modification/rehabilitation
- Energetic standard of the building (assessment/benchmarking based on age of the building)
- Buildings where rehabilitation/refurbishment would be highly visible
- Buildings that meet security standards and do not endanger the population
- Building from a certain construction series/type (e.g. public/social housing, adminis-tration buildings, schools, buildings belonging to housing associations; applicable if for instance series rehabilitation is envisaged)
- If the addressees of demonstration are national and municipal decision-makers, pilot installations should be realized on both levels (e.g. in a school, town hall and in a na-tional administration building)
- Expected Energy Saving Potential, due to
- modernization of lighting system
- steering of lighting system in line with demand
- Repeatable technical solutions are expectable
- Measures can be effectively implemented
- Change by the measure is clearly evident (before-after effect)
- The identification of the measure is possible
Additional Criteria Entrepeneurs
- Number of employees (by professions, rooms)
- Total lighting costs (net)
- Installed lighting system
- Age of lighting system
- Number of rooms/halls, size of buildings
- Type of industry
- Entrepreneurs that serve as role-model/’innovators’ for others
- Motivation & means (financial, personnel) for envisaged lighting measures
- Eligibility for contracting (if considered)
- Existence of public supporting measures (e.g. for low-, medium-, high-cost-measures)
- Financial abilities of stakeholders to implement lighting measures
- Saving potential CO2
- High scatter effect expectable
- Motivation & means (financial, personnel) of building owners (public/private) for envi-saged lighting measures
- Show-Room for the efficient technical equipment is available
Of necessity, the success of a demonstration depends on the existence of at least a basic interest of the addressees. If they do not attach importance to lighting, the demonstration faces challenges to achieve desired results. This includes that the subject of lighting as well as the results of a demonstration need to be comprehensible and understandable for the addressee.