% of global energy is consumed by the agricultural and food sector. Primary agricultural consumes only about 20%, whilst food processing including transport uses around 40% and thereby significantly contributes to global energy consumption along agricultural value chains. Food processing techniques can increase the market value of a good, its storage life and its nutritional value and can consume significant amounts of energy. Processing of food includes the '''transformation of basic materials into food ''', for example wheat into flour and flour into bread or the production of palm oil out of raw material, which can then be used for cooking. By processing, food can be turned into other, '''[http://www. fao.org/docrep/ t0207e/t0207e07.htm easier digestible forms of food]''', for example through cooking . In Africa, over 60% of the energy inputs in the food supply chain are used for cooking. Furthermore, food is processed in order to preserve it. '''Preservation techniques '''can be drying, sugaring, curing, cooling and freezing, heating, smoking, canning or bottling. These methods prove to be possibly energy -consuming as well: According to the FAO, tobacco curing accounted for over half the total on-farm energy demand in Zimbabwe in 1995.< br/><br/> To read more about the processing of food, go to: [ http://www.fao. org/docrep/014/i2454e/i2454e00.pdf http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/i2454e/i2454e00.pdf]<br/><br/> |+|
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Revision as of 10:40, 17 March 2015
About 30 per cent of the energy used worldwide goes into the production and processing of food from field to table. The vast majority of it comes from fossil fuels, being responsible for some 20 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions . Primary agricultural consumes only about 20%, whilst food processing including transport uses around 40% and thereby significantly contributes to global energy consumption along agricultural value chains.
Especially in emerging countries, the rapidly growing agro-industry faces the challenge to covers its energy needs within processing. In India for example, the installed capacity of the fruit and vegetable processing industry has been doubled between 1993 and 2006. Energy consumption of the Indian food processing industry (including the production of meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and oil, beverages, products by grain mills and dairies, and other foods such as bakery products, convenience products, cocoa products or salty snacks) requires 5,300 kilotons of oil equivalent per year.
Most energy is consumed by processes of washing and cleaning, cooking, cooling, extraction, pureeing, brewing, baking, pasteurizing, boiling, Energy for Agriculture and dehydration. With regards to meat, fish, fruit, vegetables and edible oil, electrical energy accounts for about 50% of energy consumption, especially for preservation and processing. In further segments such as beverages and other foods a high proportion of the required energy is needed for heating processes – which to a large extent is delivered by petroleum and biomass.
Broadly, the most energy intensive activities are Energy for Agriculture, cooling, Energy for Agriculture, food and beverage processing. Especially in developing countries demand for cooling is increasing rapidly, where Solar Cooling is an option.
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